Wednesday 15-06-2022

NIKK Knowledge Base: E

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Elastic deformation
The elastic deformation indicates a reversible deformation as the mechanical load will be removed. The elastic deformation was defined by the rule from Hooke. But the deformation must be very small.

Elastomer better known as rubber are in principle thermosets but the cross linking occurred over longer distances in the polymer structure. Characteristic for an elastomer is the fact that after deformation a region exists where a small load causes a big deformation. In this region the deformation has an elastic character, i.e. it is reversible as the load is removed.

Electrical conduction
Electrical conduction is the transport of electrons or ions in a material. Plastics are normally electrical insulators but with the aid of additives they could be modified to a defined conduction. E.g. carbon black, carbon fibres or metal fibres are suitable additives.

Elongation is defined as an increase in volume as a result of heat or mechanical load.

The E-Modulus also known as modulus of elasticity or stiffness is a mechanical property that defines the elongation at mechanical load. One distinguish between different E-Modulus:
- Short term E-Modulus was measured during a normal tensile or bending test. The test time is less than some minutes.
- 100 h E-Modulus is a measure of the creep of the polymer tested in a period of 100 hours.
- Creep E-Modulus takes into account the creep after long periods: 1, 10 or 25 years
In the elastic region the rule from Hooke describes the mechanical behaviour of the polymer. At an external load is the load s linear dependant on the deflection e: s = E · e.

Epoxy resin
Epoxy resins are thermosets often used for composites (FRP) and coatings. Due to the combination with fibres light weight composites are fabricated with high mechanical properties. By means of these composites special components as tanks, pipe works and components for the automotive industry are fabricated.

Erosion is a wear process where fast particles strike a surface and due to this impact particle will be excavated out of the surface. Polymers are often a good option when erosion occurs.


Ethylene is a hydrocarbon compound that consist only carbon and hydrogen. Due to the double bond it is chemically very reactive.
Ethylene is raw material for nearly every synthetic polymer. The most popular polymer is polyethylene.

Expansion coefficient
The expansion coefficient or thermal expansion coefficient of a polymer is the temperature dependant volume or density.
The majority of materials expand due to increasing temperature (positive thermal expansion)

By means of an extruder semi-finished products out of polymer powder or granulate could be produced. The raw material will be melted on in the extruder, transported due to a screw to a die. The geometry and openings define the geometry of the semi-finished product (sheet, pipe, rod, hollow-rod, etc.). Modern extruders have a production capacity up to 1200 kg/h (2,646 lb/h).

Extrusion means the production process with an extruder to fabricate semi-finished products due to the forming melted material by means of a die.

Extrusion nozzle
With the aid of an extrusion nozzle or die the geometry of a polymeric product will be defined.

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